Pregnant Women at Low Risk of Having a Child with Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia Do Not Require Treatment with Intravenous Immunoglobulin.

Journal of clinical medicine(2023)

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Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is a rare condition in which maternal alloantibodies to fetal platelets cause fetal thrombocytopenia that may lead to intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). Off-label intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) has for 30 years been the standard of care for pregnant women who previously have had a child with FNAIT. The efficacy of this treatment has never been tested in a placebo-controlled clinical trial. Although IVIg treatment may improve the neonatal outcome in women who previously have had a child with FNAIT-associated ICH, the question is whether IVIg is necessary for all immunized pregnant women at risk of having a child with FNAIT. The results from some recent publications suggest that antenatal IVIg treatment is not necessary for women who are (1) HPA-1a-immunized and HLA-DRB3*01:01-negative, (2) HPA-1a-immunized with a previous child with FNAIT but without ICH or (3) HPA-5b-immunized. If IVIg is not used for these categories of pregnant women, the amount of IVIg used in pregnant women with platelet antibodies would be reduced to less than ¼ of today's use. This is important because IVIg is a scarce resource, and the collection of plasma for the treatment of one pregnant woman is not only extremely expensive but also requires tremendous donor efforts.
pregnancy,alloimmunization,intracranial hemorrhage,intravenous immunoglobulin,platelet antibodies
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