Pharmaceuticals and Agro-Chemicals in Groundwater of Hyderabad, India

Golakoti Kalyani Subbalakshmi, Maloth Sneha, Kumara Madhu Kumar, Sabavath Murali Krishna,Areeya Sukanya,Bhattacharyya Debraj,Katam Keerthi

E3S Web of Conferences(2023)

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摘要
Organic micropollutants continue to worsen groundwater pollution, especially in many areas of the world where water resources are becoming scarce. India uses groundwater more than any other nation. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the groundwater quality of Hyderabad, India by comprehensively analyzing organic micropollutants. Samples were collected from groundwater borewells in eight different sites (Begumpet, Bharatnagar, Dundigal, Jubilee Hills, Kukatpally, Sanath nagar, Tarnaka, and Tirumalagiri). The non-targeted screening analysis was performed using liquid chromatographyquadrupole time-of-flight (LC-QTOF). About 250 different compounds were detected in total from all the samples. This includes pharmaceuticals, herbicides, fungicides, pesticides, hormones, steroids, cosmetics, plasticizers, cyanotoxins, and metabolites. In all samples, pharmaceuticals accounted for approximately 50% of the detected compounds. The Sanath nagar groundwater sample had been detected with more than 130 compounds and the least number of compounds were detected in Taranaka, Jubilee Hills, and Kukatpally areas. Apramycin (veterinary drug) and Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (plasticizer) had been found in all eight samples. The high abundance values were observed for 17αβ - Dihydroequilin, Avobenzone, Butachlor, Clarithromycin-N-oxide, Dibutyl phthalate, Doxepin, Estriol, Napropamide, and Nefazodone. Estriol and 17αβ - Dihydroequilin are the largest endocrine disruptors. The presence of various pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals in groundwater reveals pollution either directly or indirectly, by the discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater.
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