Controlled Synthesis of SnO2 Nanostructures as Alloy Anode via Restricted Potential Toward Building High-Performance Dual-Ion Batteries with Graphite Cathode

Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany)(2024)

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摘要
Dual-ion batteries (DIBs) are considered one of the promising energy storage devices in which graphite serves as a bi-functional electrode, i.e., anode and cathode in the aprotic organic solvents. Unlike conventional lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), DIBs reversibly store the cations and anions in the anode and cathodes during redox reactions, respectively. The electrolyte is a source for both cations and anions, so the choice of electrolyte plays a vital role. In the present work, the synthesis of SnO2 nanostructures is reported as a possible alternative for graphite anode, and the Li-storage performance is optimized in half-cell (Li/SnO2) assembly with varying amounts of conductive additive (acetylene black) and limited working potential (1 V vs Li). Finally, a DIB using recovered graphite (RG) fabricated from spent LIB as a cathode and SnO2 nanostructures as an anode under balanced loading conditions. Prior to the fabrication, both electrodes are pre-cycled to eliminate irreversibility. An in-situ impedance study has been employed to validate the passivation layer formation during the charge-discharge process. The high-performance SnO2/RG-based DIB delivered a maximum discharge capacity of 380 mAh g(-1). The electrochemical performance of DIB has been assessed by varying temperature conditions to evaluate their suitability in different climatic conditions.
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关键词
alloying,anodes,dual-ion batteries,graphite cathodes,recycling spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs),SnO2
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