Structure of the Gonghe Sedimentary Basin in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau: evidence from teleseismic P waves recorded by a dense seismic array

GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL(2023)

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摘要
The Gonghe Basin in the northeast Tibetan Plateau presents significant potential for hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resources. A 1990 Mw 6.4 earthquake in the basin furthers the need for an improved understanding of its sedimentary structure. In this study, we utilize data from a dense seismic array of 88 short-period seismometers deployed at an interstation spacing of approximately 3 km to scrutinize the sedimentary structure of the Gonghe Basin. By analysing teleseismic P waveforms, we identify P-to-S converted waves (Ps wave) originating from the sedimentary basement. We then determine the delay time between the Ps waves and the direct P waves (P wave) through waveform cross-correlation. By integrating this delay time with empirical velocity structure models, HDR borehole data and results from teleseismic receiver function analysis, we derive a sediment thickness model of the Gonghe Basin for the Qabqa geothermal area. Our findings reveal a gradual increase in sediment thickness from around 500 m in the east to approximately 3000 m in the west, which is consistent with other geophysical surveys and borehole data. The thick sediments in the basin could potentially serve as an excellent thermal storage cover for HDR. The strong ground motion simulation using our sediment thickness model shows that thick sediments can amplify seismic waves, increasing the risk of seismic hazards. Moreover, our study indicates that the clear Ps waves can be effectively extracted to construct a dependable sediment thickness model using teleseismic P waves recorded by a short-period dense seismic array.
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