Semi-Supervised Panoptic Narrative Grounding

MM '23: Proceedings of the 31st ACM International Conference on Multimedia(2023)

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Despite considerable progress, the advancement of Panoptic Narrative Grounding (PNG) remains hindered by costly annotations. In this paper, we introduce a novel Semi-Supervised Panoptic Narrative Grounding (SS-PNG) learning scheme, capitalizing on a smaller set of labeled image-text pairs and a larger set of unlabeled pairs to achieve competitive performance. Unlike visual segmentation tasks, PNG involves one pixel belonging to multiple open-ended nouns. As a result, existing multi-class based semi-supervised segmentation frameworks cannot be directly applied to this task. To address this challenge, we first develop a novel SS-PNG Network (SS-PNG-NW) tailored to the SS-PNG setting. We thoroughly investigate strategies such as Burn-In and data augmentation to determine the optimal generic configuration for the SS-PNG-NW. Additionally, to tackle the issue of imbalanced pseudo-label quality, we propose a Quality-Based Loss Adjustment (QLA) approach to adjust the semi-supervised objective, resulting in an enhanced SS-PNG-NW+. Employing our proposed QLA, we improve BCE Loss and Dice loss at pixel and mask levels, respectively. We conduct extensive experiments on PNG datasets, with our SS-PNG-NW+ demonstrating promising results comparable to fully-supervised models across all data ratios. Remarkably, our SS-PNG-NW+ outperforms fully-supervised models with only 30% and 50% supervision data, exceeding their performance by 0.8% and 1.1% respectively. This highlights the effectiveness of our proposed SS-PNG-NW+ in overcoming the challenges posed by limited annotations and enhancing the applicability of PNG tasks. The source code is available at
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