Comparative of HPHT and CVD diamond: performance and defect analysis for alpha radiation detector

Functional Diamond(2023)

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Currently, the high-purity single crystal diamond preparation is still a challenging task, which restricts the application of diamond in electronics. In this paper, the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) IIa type single crystal diamond was prepared on the IIa type high pressure high temperature (HPHT) substrate by combining the chamber design with the plasma purifying technology, and the performance of diamond detectors using both IIa type single crystal diamonds were compared based on the defect analysis. The dislocations in diamonds were directly observed by synchrotron radiation X-ray white-beam topography. The CVD diamond shows the comparatively low dislocation density resulting from the high-quality HPHT diamond substrate. No observable NV impurity could be found in photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. The trace impurity of substitutional nitrogen (Ns) was characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). It shows the very low concentration in the CVD diamond (2.1 ppb) compared with the several tens ppb in HPHT diamond. This value is comparable with the electronic-grade diamond reported by Element Six. Furthermore, both of the HPHT and CVD single crystal diamonds were packaged as the α-particle radiation detectors with the typical sandwich structure and used Ni/Al (50 nm/500 nm) as metal electrodes. The energy resolution of HPHT and CVD diamond detectors were 2.04% and 0.86%, respectively. Based on Schottky contact and defect regulation, at 0 voltage, the CVD diamond detector achieved response of α-particle radiation and the charge collection efficiency (CCE) was 10.76%. Under positive voltage, the CCE of HPHT and CVD diamond detectors were 38.11% and 86.65%, respectively. The deep level trapping effect of Ns impurities on charge carriers resulted in low CCE of HPHT diamond detector. The spatial polarization effect caused by defects leaded to the formation of an internal electric field, which was the main reason affecting the transport of charge carriers in CVD diamond.
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