Comprehensive Assessment of Toxicity in ChatGPT.


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Moderating offensive, hateful, and toxic language has always been an important but challenging topic in the domain of safe use in NLP. The emerging large language models (LLMs), such as ChatGPT, can potentially further accentuate this threat. Previous works have discovered that ChatGPT can generate toxic responses using carefully crafted inputs. However, limited research has been done to systematically examine when ChatGPT generates toxic responses. In this paper, we comprehensively evaluate the toxicity in ChatGPT by utilizing instruction-tuning datasets that closely align with real-world scenarios. Our results show that ChatGPT's toxicity varies based on different properties and settings of the prompts, including tasks, domains, length, and languages. Notably, prompts in creative writing tasks can be 2x more likely than others to elicit toxic responses. Prompting in German and Portuguese can also double the response toxicity. Additionally, we discover that certain deliberately toxic prompts, designed in earlier studies, no longer yield harmful responses. We hope our discoveries can guide model developers to better regulate these AI systems and the users to avoid undesirable outputs.
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