Roundup® disrupts tissue architecture, attenuates Na+/K+-ATPase expression, and induces protein oxidation/nitration, cellular apoptosis, and antioxidant enzyme expressions in the gills of goldfish, Carassius auratus

Md Imran Noor,Md Saydur Rahman

Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology(2023)

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Extensive agricultural activities to feed the growing population are one major driving force behind aquatic pollution. Different types of pesticides are used in farmlands to increase crop production and wash up into water bodies. Glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup® is one of the most used pesticides in the United States; however, its effects on teleost species are still poorly understood. This study focused on the effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of Roundup exposure (low- and high-dose: 0.5 and 5 μg/L for 2-week) on Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA, a biomarker for sodium‑potassium ion pump efficacy), cytochrome P450-1A (CYP1A, a monooxygenase enzyme), 2,4-dinitrophenyl protein (DNP, a biomarker for protein oxidation), 3-nitrotyrosine protein (NTP, a biomarker for protein nitration), superoxidase dismutase (SOD, an antioxidant enzyme), catalase (CAT, an antioxidant enzyme) expressions, and cellular apoptosis in the gills of goldfish. Histopathological and in situ TUNEL analyses showed widespread tissue damage, including lamellar fusion, loss of gill architecture, club shape of primary lamellae, mucous formation, and distortion in the epithelium layer, as well as apoptotic nuclei in gills. Immunohistochemical and qRT-PCR analyses provided insights into the expressions of molecular indicators in gills. Fish exposed to Roundup exhibited a significant (P < 0.05) downregulation of NKA expression in gills. Additionally, we observed upregulation of CYP1A, DNP, NTP, SOD, and CAT expressions in the gills of goldfish. Overall, our results suggest that exposure to Roundup causes disruption of gill architecture, induces protein oxidation/nitration and cellular apoptosis, and alters prooxidant-antioxidant homeostasis in tissues, which may lead to reduced fitness and survivability of teleost species.
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