17 Smart/functional textiles and fashion products enabled by 3D and 4D printing

De Gruyter eBooks(2023)

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Over the last two decades, researchers, technologists, designers, and manufacturers have made enormous efforts to commercialize additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing technology in an array of fields including textile, apparel, and fashion industries. Recently, a great advancement in AM of complex architectures, which are impossible or difficult to produce otherwise, has been reported. Following the success of making metal/polymer-based 3D printed stiff structures, researchers have also explored the potential of this technique for creating flexible materials such as smart textiles. This chapter presents 3D printing as a novel method for the manufacturing of more flexible, cost-effective, and functional textiles via techniques such as screen printing and ink-jet printing and for fabricating smart textile structures which are slightly different from the conventional knitted or woven fabrics but possessing intelligent properties. Specifically, in this chapter, an overview of 3D printing technology, different 3D printing techniques, material selection, and properties of 3D printed objects in the context of manufacturing of smart and functional textiles is discussed. Emerging smart textiles enabled by 4D printing have also been explored which can exhibit transformation in their structure or colour as a function of time in the presence of an external stimulus. Therefore, the transition from 3D to 4D printing, the basic aspects of 4D printing, and materials selection for 4D printing of smart textiles and fashion products are presented here. The subsequent section discusses the potential applications of textiles enabled by 3D and 4D printing. Finally, current challenges and future perspectives of 3D and 4D printing of smart textiles are summarized.
smart/functional textiles,4d printing,fashion products
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