GPT-4V(ision) is a Generalist Web Agent, if Grounded


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The recent development on large multimodal models (LMMs), especially GPT-4V(ision) and Gemini, has been quickly expanding the capability boundaries of multimodal models beyond traditional tasks like image captioning and visual question answering. In this work, we explore the potential of LMMs like GPT-4V as a generalist web agent that can follow natural language instructions to complete tasks on any given website. We propose SEEACT, a generalist web agent that harnesses the power of LMMs for integrated visual understanding and acting on the web. We evaluate on the recent MIND2WEB benchmark. In addition to standard offline evaluation on cached websites, we enable a new online evaluation setting by developing a tool that allows running web agents on live websites. We show that GPT-4V presents a great potential for web agents - it can successfully complete 50 ground its textual plans into actions on the websites. This substantially outperforms text-only LLMs like GPT-4 or smaller models (FLAN-T5 and BLIP-2) specifically fine-tuned for web agents. However, grounding still remains a major challenge. Existing LMM grounding strategies like set-of-mark prompting turns out not effective for web agents, and the best grounding strategy we develop in this paper leverages both the HTML text and visuals. Yet, there is still a substantial gap with oracle grounding, leaving ample room for further improvement.
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