Health-related quality of life, jaw function and sleep-disordered breathing among patients with dentofacial deformity

JOURNAL OF ORAL REHABILITATION(2024)

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Abstract
Background and ObjectivesPatients with dentofacial deformity (DFD) requiring orthognathic treatment have poor aesthetics, jaw function and psychological well-being, which potentially affect the quality of life. This study aimed to investigate the health-related general, oral and orthognathic quality of life, jaw function and sleep-disordered breathing at different stages of orthognathic surgical treatment.MethodsA total of 120 consecutive patients with DFD were recruited and grouped as pre-orthodontic treatment (group 1), pre-surgery (group 2), 4 months post-surgery (group 3), 24 months post-surgery (group 4) and in addition 30 controls without DFD (group 0). Outcomes were assessed using general health Short Form Survey (SF-36), Oral Health Impact (OHIP-14), Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire (OQLQ), STOP-Bang and Jaw Function Limitation Scale (JFLS) questionnaires. In addition, presence or absence of pain was recorded. Data were tested with analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis test, Tukey post hoc test and structural equation modelling (SEM).ResultsResults revealed SF-36 (p = .814) and STOP-Bang (p = .143) total scores did not differ between control and treatment groups. In contrast, OHIP-14, OQLQ and JFLS total scores differed between groups (p = .001). Higher scores were observed in groups 1 (p = .001), 2 (p = .001) and 3 (p = .041) compared to group 0, indicating poor oral health in patients with DFD. Importantly, in group 4, oral health-related quality of life was better, and OHIP-14 (p = .936) and JFLS (p = .572) scores did not differ from controls. OQLQ scores of group 4 were significantly lower than group 1 (p = .001) but higher than group 0 (p = .013). SEM results revealed a significant negative associations of pain with JFLS and OQLQ; OHIP-14 with OQLQ; OHIP-14 with SF-36; and finally STOP-Bang with SF-36. Positive associations were observed between JFLS and OHIP-14; OHIP-14 and OQLQ.ConclusionOral health-related quality of life and jaw function appears to be improved 24 months after orthognathic surgery. Pain and limitation in jaw function had a negative association with health-related quality of life. Through structural modelling equation, we identified negative association of pain and limitation in jaw function with oral health, which further has negative effects on general health in patients with detofacial deformity. Our finding revealed significant decrease in OHIP-14, OQLQ and JFLS scores at 24 months follow-up indicate an improvement in oral health and limitation in jaw function after bimaxillary orthognathic surgery.image
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Key words
dentofacial deformities,oral health,orthognathic surgery,pain,quality of life,sleep apnea
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