Adsorption of contaminants by nanomaterials synthesized by green and conventional routes: a critical review

Environmental Science and Pollution Research(2024)

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Nanomaterials, due to their large surface area and selectivity, have stood out as an alternative for the adsorption of contaminants from water and effluents. Synthesized from green or traditional protocols, the main advantages and disadvantages of green nanomaterials are the elimination of the use of toxic chemicals and difficulty of reproducing the preparation of nanomaterials, respectively, while traditional nanomaterials have the main advantage of being able to prepare nanomaterials with well-defined morphological properties and the disadvantage of using potentially toxic chemicals. Thus, based on the particularities of green and conventional nanomaterials, this review aims to fill a gap in the literature on the comparison of the synthesis, morphology, and application of these nanomaterials in the adsorption of contaminants in water. Focusing on the adsorption of heavy metals, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, dyes, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and phenol derivatives in water, for the first time, a review article explored and compared how chemical and morphological changes in nanoadsorbents synthesized by green and conventional protocols affect performance in the adsorption of contaminants in water. Despite advances in the area, there is still a lack of review articles on the topic. Graphical abstract
Nanomaterials,Green synthesis,Adsorption,Contaminant removal
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