Intraoperative complications and visual outcomes of cataract surgery in neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

Journal of cataract and refractive surgery(2024)

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PURPOSE:To compare the rate of intraoperative complications and visual outcomes in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NvAMD) and control eyes without NvAMD undergoing phacoemulsification. SETTING:Multicenter study. DESIGN:Retrospective, nonrandomized comparative study. METHODS:Eyes were classified based on the presence or absence of an NvAMD diagnosis. The main outcomes were (1) the rate of intraoperative complications, (2) the logMAR visual acuity (VA) at 4 to 12 weeks postoperatively in both groups, and (3) the reinjection rate of intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor after phacoemulsification. RESULTS:Preoperative VA was worse in the NvAMD group (0.9 ± 0.5) compared with the reference group (0.6 ± 0.5). We observed no difference in the rate of posterior capsule rupture (PCR) (2.90% vs 2.77%; P = .889), dropped lens fragments (0.46% vs 0.29%; P = .618), or zonular dialysis (0.46% vs 0.58%, P = .749) between the 2 groups. Receiving ≥10 intravitreal injections before cataract surgery predicted the likelihood of PCR with an odds ratio of 2.86 (P = .027). Proportions of eyes achieving a visual gain of ≥0.3 logMAR (∼3 Snellen lines equivalent) was lower in NvAMD eyes (39.2% vs 63.7%; P < .0001). We observed 203 eyes (73%) in the active treatment group and 139 eyes (36%) in the inactive treatment group received >1 intravitreal injection after phacoemulsification (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS:The risk for PCR was higher for eyes receiving ≥10 intravitreal injections before phacoemulsification. Only 39% of eyes with NvAMD had visual improvement by ≥3 Snellen lines.
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