Qplacer: Frequency-Aware Component Placement for Superconducting Quantum Computers

Junyao Zhang,Hanrui Wang, Qi Ding,Jiaqi Gu, Reouven Assouly,William D. Oliver,Song Han,Kenneth R. Brown, Hai "Helen" Li,Yiran Chen


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Noisy Intermediate-Scale Quantum (NISQ) computers face a critical limitation in qubit numbers, hindering their progression towards large-scale and fault-tolerant quantum computing. A significant challenge impeding scaling is crosstalk, characterized by unwanted interactions among neighboring components on quantum chips, including qubits, resonators, and substrate. We motivate a general approach to systematically resolving multifaceted crosstalks in a limited substrate area. We propose Qplacer, a frequency-aware electrostatic-based placement framework tailored for superconducting quantum computers, to alleviate crosstalk by isolating these components in spatial and frequency domains alongside compact substrate design. Qplacer commences with a frequency assigner that ensures frequency domain isolation for qubits and resonators. It then incorporates a padding strategy and resonator partitioning for layout flexibility. Central to our approach is the conceptualization of quantum components as charged particles, enabling strategic spatial isolation through a 'frequency repulsive force' concept. Our results demonstrate that Qplacer carefully crafts the physical component layout in mitigating various crosstalk impacts while maintaining a compact substrate size. On device topology benchmarks, Qplacer can reduce the required area for theoretical crosstalk-free layout by 2.61x and 2.25x on average, compared to the results of manual design and classical placement engines, respectively.
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