Green synthesis of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles: a sustainable approach


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The anthropogenic influence on the environment, exemplified by phenomena such as global warming, ozone layer depletion, glacier melting, biodiversity loss, and significant shifts in climatic conditions, has catalyzed a marked transformation in the priorities of the scientific community. This shift is evident in the increased focus on utilizing eco-friendly materials and methodologies. Consequently, there has been a paradigm shift in the mindset of synthetic chemists. Traditional reaction pathways are being supplanted by environmentally sustainable methods, aligning with the principles of green chemistry. The synthesis of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles has attracted significant attention due to their diverse applications in medicinal chemistry, materials science, and agrochemicals. However, traditional synthetic methods often involve hazardous reagents, high energy consumption, and generating substantial waste. In recent years, implementing green chemistry principles and sustainable development strategies has revolutionized the synthesis of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles, offering a more environment-friendly and efficient approach. This review article highlights the advances in synthesizing 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles using sustainable methodologies, focusing on green solvents, catalysts, and heating/stirring technologies from 2015 to the present. In addition to these sustainable synthetic routes' benefits, challenges, and future perspectives are also discussed. The synthesis of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles, showcasing advancements in sustainable methodologies, emphasizing green solvents, catalysts, and innovative technologies, while addressing associated challenges and future prospects.
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