Generic Conditions for Electromembrane Extraction of Acids with Low to Moderate Hydrophilicity in Human Plasma

Chenchen Song,Samira Dowlatshah, Somayeh Gaznawi, Anne Oldeide Hay, Grete Hasvold,Frederik André Hansen


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The current paper reports the first set of generic conditions for electromembrane extraction of acidic substances from human plasma. Two systems were developed, based on eutectic solvents; A1 (“A” for acid) comprised dodecyl methyl sulfoxide and thymol in 1:2 ratio (w/w) as liquid membrane, while A2 used [6-methylcoumarin:thymol (1:2)]:2-nitrophenyl octyl ether in 2:1 ratio (w/w). A1 and A2 were applied for extraction of 31 acidic model analytes spiked into 100 µL human plasma diluted 1:1 (v/v) with phosphate buffer pH 7.4. The acceptor solution was 50 mM NH4HCO3 buffer pH 10.0, and extraction was performed at an agitation rate of 750 RPM. Voltage and extraction time were 30 V for 30 min and 10 V for 20 min for A1 and A2, respectively. Under optimal conditions, A1 extracted analytes with 1.8 ≤ log P ≤ 6.0 with an average recovery (R) of 85.1%, while A2 extracted in a range of 0.5 ≤ log P ≤ 6.0 with an average recovery of 79.9%. Meanwhile, extraction current was low at 9 and 26 µA, respectively, which is indicative of good system robustness. Using UHPLC-MS/MS analysis of the acceptor solution, repeatability of the A1 and A2 methods was determined to be 2.8-7.7% and 3.3-9.4% for R > 40%, matrix effects were 82-117% and 84-112%, respectively, and linear calibration curves were obtained. With these methods, generic conditions are now available for electromembrane extraction of bases in the range -2.0 ≤ log P ≤ 6.4 and acids in the range 0.5 ≤ log P ≤ 6.0.
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