Liquid metal interface mechanochemistry disentangles energy density and biaxial-stretchability tradeoff in composite capacitor film

Kai Wu,Zilong Xie, Jianan Zhu,Zhengli Dou, Yongzheng Zhang,Ke Wang,Qiang Fu


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Abstract Dielectric polymer composites for film capacitors have advanced significantly in recent decades, yet their practical implementation in industrial-scale, thin-film processing faces challenges, particularly due to limited biaxial stretchability. Here, we introduce a mechanochemical solution that applies liquid metal onto rigid dielectric fillers (e.g. boron nitride), dramatically transforming polymer-filler interface characteristics. This approach significantly reduces modulus mismatch and stress concentration at the interface region, enabling polypropylene composites to achieve biaxial stretching ratio up to 450×450%. Furthermore, liquid metal integration enhances boron nitride's dielectric polarization while maintaining inherent insulation, producing high-dielectric-constant, low-loss films. These films, only microns thick yet quasi square meters in area, achieve a 55% increase in energy density over commercial biaxially-oriented polypropylene (from 2.9 to 4.5 J cm-3 at 550 MV/m), keeping 90% discharge efficiency. Coupled with improved thermal conductivity, durability, and device capacitance, this distinctive interface engineering approach makes these composites promising for high-performance film capacitors.
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