Research on precise phenotype identification and growth prediction of lettuce based on deep learning

Environmental Research(2024)

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In recent years, precision agriculture, driven by scientific monitoring, precise management, and efficient use of agricultural resources, has become the direction for future agricultural development. The precise identification and assessment of phenotypes, which serve as external representations of a crop's growth, development, and genetic characteristics, are crucial for the realization of precision agriculture. Applications surrounding phenotypic indices also provide significant technical support for optimizing crop cultivation management and advancing smart agriculture, contributing to the efficient and high-quality development of precision agriculture.This paper focuses on lettuce and employs common nutritional stress conditions during growth as experimental settings. By collecting RGB images throughout the lettuce's complete growth cycle, we developed a deep learning-based computational model to tackle key issues in the lettuce's growth and precisely identify and assess phenotypic indices. We discovered that some phenotypic indices, including custom ones defined in this study, are representative of the lettuce's growth status. By dynamically monitoring the changes in phenotypic traits during growth, we quantitatively analyzed the accumulation and evolution of phenotypic indices across different growth stages. On this basis, a predictive model for lettuce growth and development was trained.The model incorporates MSE, SSIM, and perceptual loss, significantly enhancing the predictive accuracy of the lettuce growth images and phenotypic indices. The model trained with the reconstructed loss function outperforms the original model, with the SSIM and PSNR improving by 1.33% and 10.32%, respectively. The model also demonstrates high accuracy in predicting lettuce phenotypic indices, with an average error less than 0.55% for geometric indices and less than 1.7% for color and texture indices. Ultimately, it achieves intelligent monitoring and management throughout the lettuce's life cycle, providing technical support for high-quality and efficient lettuce production.
Phenotype identification,Growth prediction,Deep learning,Lettuce
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